Inductive Reasoning tests are tests that assess your ability to get to the right conclusion based on a series of events or examples. Unlike deductive reasoning tests, in which you get to the conclusion based on a given set of rules, on inductive reasoning tests you assume what are the rules or logic that govern the set of examples, and then you find the correct answer based on your assumptions.

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Inductive Reasoning Tests assess the ability to reach conclusions based on just a few examples. On aptitude tests, inductive reasoning sections usually utilize abstract shapes and have four basic types of questions: (1) series completion, (2) matrix completion, (3) find the object that doesn’t belong, and (4) shape analogies. Test takers who can think both conceptually and analytically perform well on these types of tests.

Most of the inductive reasoning tests are non-verbal in nature – they use figural and symbolic elements rather than using numbers and words. Here are four of the most common types of non-verbal inductive reasoning questions.

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Icon Questions Explained White Question Types Explained

1. Inductive Reasoning Series Completion

This is probably the most common type of inductive reasoning questions. You are required to examine a series of elements, which follow a certain logical pattern. You need to come up with an assumption regarding the series’ logical pattern and to find one answer that could be the next shape of the series, given that it maintains that logical pattern.

The series is usually comprised of 3-5 elements and there are usually 4-6 options to choose the correct answer from. A variation of this type of question is the completion of an element in the middle of a given series of shapes.

inductive reasoning sample question 1


Each element is comprised of a square divided by two lines and of three shapes—a black circle, a white circle, and a white square. The logic of the series is based on two processes:

  • In each step, the element is rotated 90 degrees clockwise. The rotation cannot be recognized if one only looks at the big circle and the lines because of its symmetry; however, you can follow the white circle and the white square and realize that they maintain their relative positions. Assuming the trend continues, and the element is rotated 90 degrees again, then answers A and D represent the expected positions of the white circle and the white square.
  • In addition to the rotation, the black circle moves along the line it is initially positioned on. In each step, the black circle gets closer to the white circle, which is the case in answers A, B, and C.

Altogether, only answer A displays an accurate combination of both of the processes.

2. Inductive Reasoning Matrix Completion

In this type of question, you are required to examine a 3-by-3 matrix of elements, to decipher its underlying logical pattern and to correctly mark the missing element. The logical pattern may be related to the matrix’s rows, columns, diagonals, or a combination of these.

inductive reasoning sample question 2


Take any two elements of one column or of one row and compare them. If they share a feature, then the third element of that column/row does not include that same feature. On the contrary, if there is a feature that appears in only one of them, it is included in the third element as well.

For example, the left column – the top and the middle elements are identical except for the square that surrounds the middle element. Therefore, none of the features comprise the bottom element but the surrounding square.

The missing element – the left two elements of the bottom row share one feature, a square. The features inside the square of the bottom middle element are unique to that element, and the bottom left element has no unique features. The missing element, thus, is identical to the unique features of the bottom middle element – a triangle within a circle.

3. Inductive Reasoning Finding the Odd One Out

In a different take on inductive thinking, in these questions, you need to examine a group of elements and to realize which distinct characteristic is common to all elements of the group but one. That element is the odd one out.

inductive reasoning sample question 3


The base of each of the shapes within the elements is at the bottom except shape E, whose base is at the top.

Note that in order for an element to be the odd one out, it needs to be truly unique. In this example, only element C contains a triangle. One may claim that this makes it the odd one out. However, elements B and D contain quadrangles, and elements A and E contain pentagons. This means that for the property “number of edges,” elements A, B, D, and E do not share the same characteristic. This means that element C is not the odd one out.

4. Inductive Reasoning Shape Analogies

In this type of question, inductive reasoning is working at its best. You need to come up with a logical explanation and find the correct answer based on a single example. As in verbal analogy questions, the relation or differences between one pair of elements must be identical to relation/differences between a different pair of elements.

inductive reasoning sample question 4


In the pair at the left, every circle that was attached to the square from the outside moves to the adjacent position inside the square. Respectively, every circle that was attached to the square from the inside moves to the adjacent position outside the square.

In order to maintain the analogy, the same rule must apply to pair at the right.

Answer C does just that – three circles that were outside of the visible element of the pair at the right move inside, and one circle that was inside the element moves outside.

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Icon Technical Facts White Technical Facts

Inductive Reasoning Test Fast Facts (tl;dr)

  • Non-verbal questions.
  • Usually given by SHL.
  • Question types: Series completion, matrix completion, odd one out, shape analogies.

SHL Inductive Reasoning

SHL, probably the world’s largest provider of inductive Reasoning tests had this to say about it: “These tests measure the ability to work flexibly with unfamiliar information and find solutions. People who perform well on these tests tend to have a greater capacity to think conceptually as well as analytically.” (source:

Common names of the test

  • Inductive Reasoning
  • Diagramatic Reasoning
  • Abstract Reasoning

Icon Frequently Asked Questions White Inductive Reasoning FAQs

What is the Inductive Reasoning Test?

The Inductive Reasoning Test is a pre-employment assessment test that measures a candidate’s inductive reasoning skills. This test, usually by SHL, proves to HR and hiring managers that you have the ability to take information and draw a conclusion. If you take the time to study and practice, you will feel more confident during test-time and, consequently, score higher, proving to your future employers that you are a good enough candidate to move on to the next step in the recruitment process and, ultimately, join the team.

What to Expect on the Inductive Reasoning Test?

The Inductive Reasoning Test may be comprised of non-verbal questions in the following categories:
– Series completion
– Matrix completion
– Odd one out
– Shape analogies

Free Practice

Icon Tips White Inductive Reasoning Test Tips

1. Read through the instructions 

Review the question and possible answers quickly, yet thoroughly. Scan the information for relevant data and apply it to reach the right answer.

2. Manage your time:

Don’t spend too much time on any one particular question. Remember that you have limited time to complete the test. If you encounter a tough question that you can’t immediately answer, take your best guess and move on to the next one.

3. Know your strengths

Don’t worry about not getting all the answers right. However, you should at least get a score above the average or within the score range required for a particular job.

4. Try to correctly answer as many questions as you can:

If you don’t know the actual answer to a question, you can at least start the process of elimination by removing the answers that sound extremely far-fetched.

5. Plan your Inductive Reasoning Test strategy:

While you are preparing for the test, take the time to read the instructions carefully so you can plan your test strategy and get the highest score possible. Avoid reading the instructions during the real test—you should know them before you even walk into the testing center.


  1. Course Introduction
  2. Inductive & Abstract Reasoning Warm-up
  3. Inductive Reasoning Timed Tests
  4. Course Conclusion


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    Dahlia Z****
      September 19, 2021 at 8:54 AM

    Easy to follow through the process of the test and well structured. I manage to upgrade my skill and can take it at my own pace.

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    Karen W****
      September 15, 2021 at 6:44 PM

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    julien h**
      September 14, 2021 at 10:16 PM

    Exercise are very helpful with many useful tips for test preparation!
    I recommend to everyone for their training and preparation.
    Julien .

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    Cynthia D A****
      August 13, 2021 at 5:48 AM

    Iprep does a great job of explaining – why one answer is better than the other. The program is enhancing my understanding of inductive reasoning.

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    Diana C********
      August 5, 2021 at 3:46 PM

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      August 1, 2021 at 5:27 PM

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    Lester B**
      June 20, 2021 at 7:33 AM

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    Pierre-Yves L*******
      June 13, 2021 at 6:40 PM

    Great preparation and explanation for the real test to come. All different kinds of tests are covered. I will share with other.

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      June 1, 2021 at 8:31 AM

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    Jack F******
      May 25, 2021 at 7:36 PM

    Outstanding warm-up for the real thing. And when you get it wrong, somehow their VERBAL explanations of the patterns are very clear, easy to follow. I’ve been a pro writer for years, and their explanations are much better than I would be able to write.

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    Sonia B*******
      May 8, 2021 at 2:11 PM

    I found explanations to be very helpful. Think these prep questions will really help! If th real test has similar questions I will do very well I would received signing up!

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    Amret M****
      March 26, 2021 at 12:56 PM

    Really helpful and free, great to work with and easy to use, the sections are clear and the information made me feel more confident!

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    Jamie C****
      March 21, 2021 at 8:56 PM

    It’s quite helpful. It goes through the different types of inductive reasoning. After doing so I became much better at recognising patterns. If you struggle with that test it’s highly recommended.

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    felicia p*****
      January 15, 2021 at 10:23 AM

    this course helped me to understand the different type of question and how to approach each question with the right mindset

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    Chrysanthi K******
      January 1, 2021 at 7:53 PM

    Explanation is provided in “baby” language, easy to understand. Friendly user, highly recommended. Very useful tool for anyone who wants to practise to logical test

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    Jinoy J***
      December 2, 2020 at 10:20 AM

    Very good practice tests and you get an insight on how to analyze the problems. The difficulty level also keeps on increasing for better.

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    Daniela T***
      November 25, 2020 at 12:08 PM

    I liked the explanations on inductive tests structure at the beginning. You followed that along the introductory testing, and that helped me in overall understanding the topic.
    As things to be improved, it would be good having the answers available for study after tests is completed.

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    Adrianne B******
      November 24, 2020 at 12:23 AM

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      October 8, 2020 at 7:50 AM

    Clear instructions and awesome tests with adequate information on missed questions review. Feels like a live test, great job guys!

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    Jens D*******
      October 3, 2020 at 1:07 PM

    This is a very comprehensive and thorough introduction to the most common types of questions and test items you are likely to be exposed to when looking for carreer development opportunities. Good practice!

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    Graeme M*****
      September 25, 2020 at 7:21 AM

    I found this very helpful. As the tests went on, I found it easier to discard conventional thinking and to focus on the elements that matter.

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      September 5, 2020 at 11:41 AM

    Its interesting and fun at the same time you learn and get more realaxed on diffrent kind of questions that my come on a “real” test. I am hoppy to do this!

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      August 30, 2020 at 12:34 AM

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    After going through all of these !) sections and reading through explanations and tips&tricks I do feel much more confident to be able to pass the test with results good enough

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    carol s****
      August 1, 2020 at 2:52 PM

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      July 22, 2020 at 11:11 PM

    This practice is very helpful, however, time limit may be added for one to be able to learn to beat time. Thanks

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    Riham K*****
      July 12, 2020 at 7:47 PM

    very helpful and the explanation is great. Thanks a lot this course helped me a lot and I am now totally ready for my exam

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    ope s******
      July 11, 2020 at 8:57 AM

    I have had just over a week to prepare for a grad school programme and using the inductive reasoning questions here has really me with trackable progress as most other resources limit you to just one free test before you pay. Here i have the opportunity to use iPrep for 2 days before i had to make the decision to go further with them

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      July 4, 2020 at 11:09 PM

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      July 1, 2020 at 9:51 AM

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      May 6, 2020 at 3:54 PM

    Was very helpful and a good practice. I have definitely made some progress which I think will help on the actual test

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    Lori L******
      April 29, 2020 at 10:15 AM

    I feel it was a great help in preparing me for the test nut would like a few more practice tests to secure my knowledge.

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    Magdalena B*******
      April 21, 2020 at 3:02 PM

    Excited to find a course that gives explanations as well as practice tests! The course helped me to prepare for a logical thinking test.

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      April 9, 2020 at 11:37 AM

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      March 19, 2020 at 1:37 AM

    Explanations are detailed and clear, good tips are provided along the way to help understand the logic of the question.

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    Marc T*****
      March 18, 2020 at 3:15 AM

    i believe this practice assessment tests provided me with insight on the types of questions. However, I ended up guessing on about 40% of the questions because of the 15 minute time limit.

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    Joseph T***
      March 16, 2020 at 7:07 PM

    These practice exams are excellent. They give a full explanation of the logic which gives a better understanding. Thank you

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      March 7, 2020 at 6:46 PM

    It was very nice and very helpful.This will be helpful during final exam.Please extend for more 7 days.thank you.I have learned so many tricks and process to solve the questions easily.

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      February 17, 2020 at 9:52 PM

    The practice tests were quite helpful. There were some highly complex and esoteric matrix transformations. Overall there is nice variety of practice tests and hints.

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    Minli Y*
      February 8, 2020 at 11:22 AM

    good course! learn quite some new thing to do the abstract reasoning! Wishing to get a good result in the comming test!

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      January 17, 2020 at 10:41 AM

    So far really good! They have good explanations for seemingly difficult questions! It is a good way to start the learning process

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      October 22, 2019 at 11:31 AM

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      October 14, 2019 at 8:04 AM

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Get to know what Inductive Reasoning Tests are like by practicing with these sample questions: