Critical thinking tests assess your skills in examining and evaluating reasoning. Such reasoning can be on any subject and can use both verbal and numerical material. The skills of critical thinking include being able to analyze the sequence of claims in reasoning, to assess the strength of reasoning, to interpret meaning, to find implicit claims in reasoning, and to evaluate the possible significance of claims (including evidence).

These tests can be used for selection for higher education courses, and in the employment world as a pre-employment screening tool and as a personnel development tool.

### Did you know?

Critical Thinking Tests measure a number of skills, including your ability to (1) recognize assumptions (2) evaluate arguments and (3) draw conclusions. Critical thinking tests are commonly used by academic institutions and in pre-employment testing. Thinking through questions logically and understanding what is being asked are two characteristics of people who do well on these types of tests.

Free Practice

## Critical Thinking Questions Types

The sections below review the most common types of questions included in critical thinking tests and provide examples of question scenarios, answers, and solutions. Additional critical thinking sample questions for you to practice can be found on the free practice tab.

### Judging Inferences

In this category, you are given a short passage containing evidence, and some inferences drawn from it. Your task is to judge degrees of truth or falsehood in relation to given inferences that have been drawn from the passage. The degrees range from “true” at one end to “false” at the other, with “probably true” and “probably false” within the range. In addition, there is a possible response of “insufficient data” which fits when none of the other judgments can be made. Though there are five possible options, since the same passage will be used for only two or three questions, not all of them will apply to the inferences that are given.

A worldwide study shows that there are behavioral shifts among consumers. 41% said that they are “increasingly looking for ways to save money.” Consumers are largely brand-loyal but shop around for the best prices. Only 12% of consumers have traded-down to buy cheaper brands (such as bottled water), with 11% trading up (with products such as cosmetics). There has been a big shift towards online shopping.

Proposed inference:

Not all consumer behavior is concerned with saving money.

1. True
2. Probably true
3. Insufficient data
4. Probably false
5. False

### Recognizing Assumptions

In this type of question, you are looking for what is taken-for-granted or assumed in an argument or in a statement of a position. In other words, though something has not been explicitly stated in an argument or in a position, it is necessary for its author to believe or accept it.

The main justification for taxation is to raise money to increase public welfare rather than to limit the choices available for private spending.

Proposed assumption:

Choices made by private spending will not maximize public welfare.

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### Deduction

In these questions, you are asked to consider if a given conclusion necessarily follows from given statements. By this, we mean that, if the given statements are true (and, for these questions, we always need to take it that they are), then does a given conclusion have to follow? In other words, we are not dealing with conclusions that, at best, probably follow, but those which, given the logic of the argument, must follow.

Some economic predictions are accurate for the short-term. All economic predictions that are accurate for the short-term are inaccurate for the long-term. Therefore…

Proposed conclusion:

No economic predictions are accurate for the long-term.

1. Conclusion follows
2. Conclusion does not follow

### Interpretation of Information

In these questions, you need to use the standard of “beyond reasonable doubt” in order to judge whether a given conclusion follows from the information that is given. (As with deduction, we need to take it that the information is true.) The criterion of “beyond reasonable doubt” is a strong one but it is weaker than the one used in deduction, which is that the conclusion necessarily follows, given the logical structure of the statements.

Economic forecasters tend to perform well with three to four-month predictions, but become much less successful beyond this timescale, especially with 22 months or more. The biggest errors occur ahead of economic contractions. This is because, though economies normally have steady but slow growth, when they contract, they do so sharply.

Proposed conclusion:

Short-term forecasts (up to four months) of an economy’s performance are normally accurate except when the economy contracts.

1. Conclusion follows
2. Conclusion does not follow

### Evaluation of Arguments

In these questions, you need to judge the strength or weakness of given arguments. You are given a question in the form of “Should x be the case?” and then an argument in the form of “Yes, because y” or “No, because y.” The relationship between x and y  is then to be judged by evaluating whether the reason given provides weak or strong support.

Should tax evasion and theft be seen as equivalent crimes?

Argument:

No; most people who commit tax evasion wouldn’t also commit theft.

1. The Argument is strong
2. The Argument is weak

### Examining Definitions

In these questions, you are asked to use some information in what is given in a short dialogue in order to clarify how one of the two participants in the dialogue is using a term. There can be a dispute between the participants as to the meaning of the term.

“Very much so – it has been a good investment,” said Mary. “I invested in them five years ago and they have given a good return over a period when other investments have achieved much less.”

Of the following, which is the best way to state Mary’s notion of a good investment?

1. A good investment is one that produces a higher than predicted return over a given period.
2. A good investment is one that produces a higher return than other investments.
3. A good investment is one that produces a high return over a period when other investments have not done so.

### Judging Credibility

In questions on credibility, you are asked to judge between the believability of claims that are made about a given scenario. The scenario will be described in such a way that claims about it can be judged against relevant credibility criteria such as expertise, ability to perceive, motive, and reputation. In other words, you are asked to make a credibility judgment between statements, including identifying the possibility that neither statement is more or less believable than the other.

A research study on the language abilities of parrots has been running for a year. The head of the study, Dr. Polly Atkinson, has extensive experience in working on animal communication. She has recently published the first report on the research.

In the following question, two statements are given: (1) and (2). These statements are underlined and the source of them is given. You need to decide which of the two is the more believable but, if you think that neither one is more believable, then mark (3) as your answer.

(1) Parrots were able to use the majority of the words that they were taught (from “Parrots can talk better than young children” in an article based on the report by Dr. Atkins in “Modern Parenting,” a popular magazine).

(2) The parrots could mimic a large proportion (83.8%) of the words that they were given over a period of 100 days (from an article by Dr. Atkins in the journal “Animal learning and behavior”).

(3) Neither statement is more believable.

Free Practice

## Critical Thinking Test Tips

#### 1. Answer strictly based on the provided info

Answer each question solely based on the conditions and facts provided in the question, and not by using your own industry knowledge. However, what is not mentioned may also be relevant for disproving a conclusion.

#### 2. Read each question carefully and don’t skip paragraphs or sentences

You might encounter long questions which you may be tempted to skim through. Don’t! By quickly scanning the question, you may miss valuable information you will need to get the right answer. Read thoroughly and then make your decision.

#### 3. Try finding logic in the statements

Answering each question requires finding a logical connection between the statements or the sentences of the passage. Analyze these and try to find logic between them.

#### 4. Learn to manage the time

Since there will be both long and short questions, the time spent on each question is difficult to assess in advance. However, through practice, you should know how to manage time without skipping any question. Learn to pace and compete with time. This tip only applies to the timed version of the test.

#### 5. Plan and practice

Lastly, to ace any test, precise planning, and continuous practice are a must! Therefore, practice as many questions as you can beforehand.

## Critical Thinking Tests for Employment

The results of critical thinking tests reflect on how a job prospect decision making and problem-solving skills and were found to be a good predictor of work performance. Poor critical thinking skills may be costly for any business in terms of higher expenses, loss of revenue, and lower productivity. High scores suggest that the candidate is likely to discover crucial information and problems, evaluate the variables and risks properly, and develop quick and adequate solutions for the benefit of the organization.

## Common Critical Thinking Tests

The following are the most used critical thinking assessments. These are mainly used in the employment field but are also utilized as a personal appraisal of critical thinking skills of candidates in various academic programs as an educational placement tool.

• Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) – Developed and published by Pearson, this is hands-down the most widely-used critical thinking assessment test. Watson-Glaser’s 40 questions focus on five critical thinking skills – inference, assumptions, deduction, interpretation, and evaluation. It is usually completed in up to 35 minutes.
• California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) – This test by Insight Assessment is common mostly in the US. Its common version is comprised of 34 questions to be completed in 45-50 minutes. The CCTST evaluates overall reasoning skills, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, explanation, inference, deduction, and induction.
• Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) – The CCTT Level Z is the advance level of the test, which is mostly used to predict applicants’ performance in college, and in employment selection. It consists of 52 items to be completed in 50 minutes and assesses induction, deduction, credibility, identification of assumptions, definition, and prediction in planning.

Disclaimer – All the information and prep materials on iPrep are genuine and were created for tutoring purposes. iPrep is not affiliated with publishers of Critical Thinking tests.

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Welcome to iPrep’s Critical Thinking test preparation course.

This course will help you boost your skills and with it your confidence towards your upcoming test. The course will provide you with the following tools and benefits:

• You will become familiar with the most common five types of questions on critical thinking tests – Inference, Recognition of Assumptions, Deductions, Interpretations, and Evaluation of Arguments.
• You will be given a full-length 40-question simulation test. This simulation includes similar questions to those you will encounter in real tests with the same level of difficulty. It also has the same estimated time limit as normally exist in real tests. Experiencing the test’s time pressure will ensure it will not come as a surprise on test day.
• You will be provided with a great variety of helpful tips for the different types of questions. Some of the tips are in the guidance sections and additional ones in the detailed explanations that follow each question.

15 Learning Hours9 Practice Tests246 Questions30 Day Access

By the end of this course, you will be more knowledgeable and comfortable with critical thinking test questions – Knowledge and familiarity with the test are the two most significant factors that can help you maximize your score and improve your chances of success.

The course is comprised of two parts – guidance and the test simulations. In the guidance section, we will review each type of question, its purpose, and its underlying logical mechanism. You will also have a chance to practice several test-level questions before approaching the test simulation to get a feel for the challenge ahead.

Afterwards, you will proceed to the simulation test. Once done, you will be able to get full question explanations and even see how well you performed in comparison with other people who have taken the test.

Wishing you an enjoyable learning experience!

Skills You Will Learn

Recognition of AssumptionsEvaluation of ArgumentsDrawing Conclusions

#### Curriculum

1. Course Introduction
2. Question Types Guidance
3. Test-Taking Tips
4. Full-Length Critical Thinking Test Simulations
5. Course Conclusion

### Dr. Roy van den Brink-Budgen

Co-founder and Director of Studies of the Centre for Critical Thinking

Dr. Roy van den Brink-Budgen has been working in the field of critical thinking for over thirty years. His experience has included the development of various assessments in critical thinking, and teaching the subject to a wide range of groups (students from primary to postgraduate, teachers from primary to college, juvenile offenders, and business managers). He has also written seven books on the subject, many journal articles, and online courses for secondary students and MBA students (as well as having produced a critical thinking card game). He has given presentations to various international conferences on critical thinking and creative thinking.

His work in critical thinking has taken him to many countries (including France, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, Spain, the UK, and Singapore – where he is the Director of Studies at the Centre for Critical Thinking). He serves as a consultant on critical thinking to PocketConfidant, an international company that is developing AI for personal coaching. In addition, he runs a company that provides various services in critical thinking – if…then ltd – based in the UK.

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June 12, 2019 at 12:37 PM

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Get to know the most common types of questions in Critical Thinking Assessment Tests. Practice with these sample questions:

#### Question 1 of 7

First Type – Inference

A worldwide study shows that there are behavioral shifts among consumers. 41% said that they are “increasingly looking for ways to save money.” Consumers are largely brand loyal but shop around for the best prices. Only 12% of consumers have traded down to buy cheaper brands (such as bottled water), with 11% trading up (with products such as cosmetics). There has been a big shift towards online shopping.

Inference: Consumers who are brand loyal are less likely than those who aren’t to look for ways to save money.

• True
• Probably True
• Insufficient Data
• Probably False
• False

The correct answer is Probably False.

The third sentence gives evidence that, although “consumers are largely brand-loyal,” they also “shop around for the best prices.” Together, these two pieces of evidence make it not probable that brand-loyal customers “are less likely than those who aren’t to look for ways to save money.” At one level, you could say that this is an example of insufficient data, but this category applies when the evidence is simply insufficient (very often, it’s completely absent). Here the evidence is sufficient to understand that it makes this inference a “probably false” one.

#### Question 2 of 7

Second Type – Recognition of Assumptions

Statement: “It’s clear that there will be an exponential speed-up of AI performance, with a correspondingly huge impact on business strategy.”

Proposed Assumption: The greater the speed of AI performance, the bigger the impact is on business strategy.

The relationship between AI performance and the impact on business strategy in the statement is such that the faster AI performance increases, the greater the impact on strategy must be. This can be seen if one looks at the original statement together with the negative version of the assumption.

“It’s clear that there will be an exponential speed-up of AI performance, with a correspondingly huge impact on business strategy.”

The greater the speed of AI performance, the less is the impact on business strategy.

As can be seen, this negative version does not fit at all with the statement, showing that the assumption must be made.

#### Question 3 of 7

Third Type – Deduction

Premises: All companies use ways to maximize their profits. Some companies use profit-sharing plans; such plans help to retain staff. Retaining staff is a way to maximize a company’s profits. Therefore…

Conclusion: Not all profit-maximizing companies retain staff.

• Conclusion follows
• Conclusion does not follow

This conclusion follows the premises.

In the diagram below, “A” represents all the profit-maximizing ways; hence, it represents all the companies because according to the first premise, “All companies use ways to maximize their profits.”

The next premises create a link between profiting-sharing plans, retaining staff, and maximizing profits. “B” represents the portion of the companies that follow this mechanism of maximizing profits.

This inference can be drawn from the first premise (“All companies use ways to maximize their profits”) and the significance of the second and the third, which together allow the conclusion that there are profit-maximizing companies that do not retain staff.

#### Question 4 of 7

Fourth Type – Interpretation

According to a 2018 survey, 76% of the US population considers someone with an annual income of $10,000 to be “poor,” and 56% considers someone with an annual income of$100,000 to be “rich.” The majority of people saw the category of “neither rich nor poor” as including annual incomes from $40,000 to$80,000. Almost equal percentages saw someone with an income of $90,000 as “rich” or “neither rich nor poor.” Conclusion: To be considered “rich” in the US, someone needs to have an income of at least ten times that of the poor. • Conclusion follows • Conclusion does not follow This conclusion does not follow beyond a reasonable doubt from the premises. This neither takes into account the possible percentages for those seen as “poor” in income groups other than$10,000, nor the lack of full agreement on whether an income of \$100,000 means that someone is “rich.” As a result, the evidence is insufficient for this conclusion to be drawn beyond a reasonable doubt.

#### Question 5 of 7

Fifth Type – Evaluation of Arguments

Question: Should tariffs on foreign goods be used as a way of protecting domestic jobs?

Argument: No; some domestic jobs are created as a result of importing foreign goods.

• Argument strong
• Argument weak

This argument is strong.

This provides both a relevant and important challenge to the question. If the focus is on the protection of domestic jobs, then risking the reduction of foreign imports through tariffs (by consequent price-increases) could reduce the number of jobs in some domestic industries.

#### Question 6 of 7

Sixth Type – Definition

“That’s an interesting piece of furniture,” said Anna.

“Interesting?” said Mike. “It’s more than interesting. It’s a real antique. It’s been made using a design that is well over 100 years old, using methods that are even older. You certainly don’t get craftsmanship like that anymore.”

“But does that make it an antique?” asked Anna.

Question: Of the following, which is the best way to state Mike’s notion of an antique?

1. An antique is an item whose design and methods of construction are at least 100 years old and is no longer currently made to this level of skill.
2. An antique is an item that was designed and made at least 100 years ago.
3. An antique is an item that was made using methods not seen anymore and whose design is over 100 years old.

Mike sees an antique item as having three features: an at least 100 years old design, made according to methods that are older (so also covered by “at least 100 years old”), and the current absence of skills to make it. This definition covers all three of these features.

(B) is incorrect. Mike’s use of the term “antique” does not include the necessity of the item having been made at least 100 years ago.

(C) is incorrect. This includes two of the features of Mike’s use of the term (methods of construction no longer seen and design that is at least 100 years old), but it does not include the reference to the methods being at least 100 years old.

#### Question 7 of 7

Seventh Type – Credibility

Professor Whitman of the Food Research Laboratory (FRL) has been conducting research on the effectiveness of meal-replacement products in helping people lose weight. Interim results from his research have shown that, so far, Product A has not resulted in any significant weight loss in those who have used it, but that there was evidence of an up to 12.5% weight loss in those who used Product B.

In the following question, two statements are given: (A) and (B). These statements are underlined, and their sources are given. You need to decide which of the two is more believable but if you think that neither one is more believable, then mark (C) as your answer.

1. One of the products we are testing has not resulted in any significant weight-loss (from a press release given by Professor Whitman)
2. Product B has shown a more positive effect on weight loss than has Product A (stated by Professor Whitman in an interim report to the FRL research committee).
3. Neither statement is more believable.

Both (A) and (B) are accurate claims made by the same person based on the information given. Since there is no reason to question the credibility of either (A) or (B) (given their sources), this means that neither of them is more believable than the other.

### Well done! You have completed the Sample Questions section.

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